Collaboration with Ahmet….

This piece is in collaboration with my Turkish friend Ahmet who is getting a masters in History. This is one of our drafts…

The foundation of the Modern Turkish Republic on a national and secular base required a full-scale reconsideration of Turkish history. For this purpose, the Kemalist state commissioned an army of Turkish and foreign historians to write a history for new Turkish generations and to explore “the so far ignored role of Turks in world history” for an international audience. This new historiography was based on the “Turkish history thesis” which emphasized the centrality of Turks in the formation of the leading civilizations. Depiction of Arabs and its indispensable component, Islam, constituted an important place within this secular and national historiography. Historians and particularly Etienne Copeaux in his De l’Adriatique à la mer de Chine have analyzed the image of Arabs mostly in reference to the Turkish history textbooks of the 1930s. In his book he does not refer to other sources since he thinks “school discourse (textbooks) and national discourse (other publications) are identical and repeat each other.”[1] However, a broader examination of Turkish historiography of the same period, which would include scholarly journals and the proceedings of the conferences organized by the Kemalist state along with official history textbooks from 1930s, show that the image of Arabs in Turkish historiography is not as coherent as it has been thought to be. Continue reading


Reconstructing Race Relations: From slavery to segregation 1862-1900.

On the 22nd of September 1862 as the American Civil war raged onward, an American President set into motion a course of events that would cement, in the eyes of a few, a forced change in racial relations that would carry on well into the 20th century. Continue reading

Influencing America:

How the Marketing Revolution of the 19th century impacted daily life

The Marketing Revolution of the 19th century revolutionized the way America conducted her business. By combining vast transportation improvements and expansions, industrial developments and technology, and major overhauls in American institutional infrastructure the United States of America achieved with relative ease a shift in socio-economic status- the effects of which still linger with us today. Or in the words of Nancy Cott “[Merchant Capitalist’s] actions commanded a shift away from home production for family use, and from local craftsmen’s production of custom … work for known individuals, toward a more standardized production for a wider market.” (Cott, p. 282). Therefore it is safe to assume that this socio-economic shift came with significant impacts to the daily lives of almost all Americans. In order to determine just how great an impact the Market Revolution had on Americans, a brief examination of three main demographics of the time- White Anglo-Saxon Men (WASP men), White Women, and Colored Populations[1] must take place. Continue reading

Second Party System

It is said that necessity is the mother of invention. In the early 19th century America necessity stepped into the political arena- thus the second party system was born.

With the panic of 1819 and the Missouri compromise fully underway, some American Republican grew leery. They saw their party as losing touch with what was best for the country and wished for a return to principles that had Jefferson had founded it upon. By the election of 1824 Jefferson’s Republican Party had basically collapsed. Different candidates, with alternative views struggled with each other for control of the party and the nation. This was especially evident in the election of 1824 when John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford and Andrew Jackson ran for the office of President. When the election was over it was Jackson who had been assumed to have won since as our text points out “Jackson’s support was not only larger but also more nearly national than that of his opponents” (textbook, p 338). However, under electoral statute he fell just 32 votes shy of securing his win. There for it was up to the House of Representatives to choose between the three top candidates. Under what became know as the corrupt bargain it was John Quincy Adams that became president. Johnson, as any candidate would felt robbed. Our text states that “Although in the campaign he had made only vague policy statements, he had firm ideas of what had gone wrong with the republic” (textbook, p 339). Over the course of Adams presidency those firm ideals increased. The text goes on, “Like hundreds of thousand other Americans, Jackson sensed that something had gone wrong with the republic- that selfishness and intrigue had corrupted the government” (textbook, p 339). Continue reading

United nations – WSU chicago positions


President of Uruguay at the Millennium Summit in 2000: “Free trade, of which so much is said and so little done, is today more necessary than ever in a world made smaller and more interdependent by the phenomenon of globalization”

The process of globalization lends even greater urgency to the call by the developing countries for genuinely free international trade. There can be no development without trade and Uruguay therefore reaffirms the vital importance of market rules, the elimination of protectionism and of the practice of subsidies in vital areas of our economy, such as agriculture and textiles. Uruguay aspires to a multilateral system of open and transparent trade, in which open markets and the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers enable us to take advantage of the comparative advantages of our economies and facilitate our competitive insertion into the global economy. Uruguay also defends regional integration as an effective instrument of development which complements efforts to liberalize and open up economies within the framework of the new international trade regulations that have emerged from the Uruguay Round Agreements of GATT under which the WTO was created.

The launching of a new round of multilateral trade negotiations in Doha, the International Conference on Financing for Development, the World Food Summit, and the World Summit on Sustainable Development have all been gatherings with high political content and the implementation of their outcomes must be done in a balanced way in order to fulfill the obligations of both the industrialized and the developing countries in the international field.

Uruguay sees the need to bring the Doha round back into the fold because without multilateral agreements we cannot move forward and share the benefits of free trade.

We firmly believe that armament in particular is a significant drain on any country’s budget because it utilizes a huge chunk of the available budget. The money used for disarmament might very well be used to fund social welfare of a particular country or any other programs that brings good health and longevity to its citizens. Therefore, we would like steer away countries including Uruguay away from the costly security policies towards disarmament.

The agreement that the country of Uruguay has on nuclear energy with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is not yet fool-proof from at any event of nuclear energy misuse or usage of nuclear power as arms. As detailed in the second provision of the protocol, Uruguay is not required to provide the IAEA with a detailed nuclear material accountability; instead the country is only required to provide information on location, operational status and current annual production capacity of uranium mines and concentration plants for Uruguay as a whole. Therefore, we would like see that Uruguay be providing the IAEA with a detailed nuclear material accountancy.

Furthermore, the amount of nuclear material that is presently being allowed to be transported into and out of Uruguay in our estimation is rather large amounts, which are ten metric tons of uranium and/or twenty tons of thorium annually. These amounts could be greatly decreased for a non-nuclear country like Uruguay.

We would support the UN in the creations of programs that will foster economic growth and suggest that incentive be given to countries that register under the arms control association of the UN.

Uruguayan Position on Regional Cooperation and Counterterrorism

Uruguay is a leading Latin American country on both the fronts of regional and multilateral cooperation in improving human rights and achieving the Millennium Development Goals; it also is making great efforts in signing treaties dealing with antiterrorism efforts. On the issue of the MDGs, it is the only Latin American country where inequality has not increased during the past decade. The front running achievements regarding the MDGs are in relation to education and health. Uruguay is also making progress in the sector of human rights. As of now it has signed and ratified eight of the nine human rights treaties. Uruguay also believes that strong regional and multilateral cooperation is the best weapon against terrorism. Not only are they strong on terrorism, but on the financing of it as well. On January 30, 2007, Uruguay ratified the Hemispheric Anti- Terrorism Treaty. Along with this treaty it is also part of the Declaration of Lima to Prevent, Combat and Eliminate Terrorism and the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism. All together Uruguay is a party to twelve treaties regarding anti-terrorism.

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